This article, Types of Dogs, covers the various kennel club groupings or categories of dogs
The basic pattern of dog behavior is inherited from the wolf but by selective breeding, humans have succeeded in reducing or exaggerating certain behavioral and physical characteristics. As a result, we have created dog breeds in a range of shapes and sizes, as well as breeds with quite different personality types. Most often these personality types reflect the work the dog was originally designed for.
So a Dachshund, originally bred for chasing small game from burrows will be more likely to dig up your garden than say, a Border Collie. But the Border Collie is more likely to have a go at “herding” your kids. Or the family cat! National Kennel Clubs recognize the diverse personalities of dog breeds by categorizing them according to the work they were designed to do.
The forerunner of these organizations, The Kennel Club of Great Britain, was founded in 1859. It divides recognized breeds into six groups; Gundogs, Hounds, Terriers, Toy Dogs, Utility, and Working. The American Kennel Club (AKC) employs the following seven groups (plus a miscellaneous group): Herding, Hounds, Non-Sporting, Sporting, Terrier, Toy Dogs, Working.
Our own classification of types of dogs is a variation on the two
Types of Dogs: Companion Dogs
As the name suggests they were bred primarily for companionship, although some of the dogs we now consider toy or companion dogs, like the Yorkie, are in fact terriers and still display terrier-like behavior. In general, they are small, sweet and affectionate, but they can be possessive and are prone to excessive barking – especially if they feel threatened. Popular Dogs in this group include; Bichon Frise, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Chihuahua, Maltese, Papillon, Pekingese, Pomeranian, Shih Tzu, Yorkshire Terrier.
Types of Dogs: Guardian Dogs
Usually large to a giant in size as their size was meant to intimidate intruders. Despite this, they are generally good-natured and protective, with a tendency towards laziness. Popular Dogs in this group include; Boxer, Bull Mastiff, Cane Corso, Doberman, Great Dane, Rottweiler, St Bernard.
Types of Dogs: Gundogs
Good-natured, sociable, energetic, playful, intelligent, trainable and eager to please. Generally medium to large in size. They were bred to find and retrieve game and still have strong retrieving instincts. Popular Dogs in this group include; Cocker Spaniel, English Pointer, Golden Retriever, Irish Setter, Labrador Retriever, Portuguese Water Dog, Weimaraner.
Types of Dogs: Herding Dogs
Sensitive, energetic, hardworking, playful, intelligent, protective and trainable. Many are still employed as sheep and cattle herders and those that are kept as pets still have a strong herding instinct. Popular Dogs in this group include; Australian Shepherd, Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog, Shetland Sheepdog, Welsh Corgi.
Types of Dogs: Hounds
Hounds fall into two distinct groups, sight hounds, and scent hounds. As the names suggest they are hunting dogs using sight and scent respectively. They tend to be amiable, independent, and sociable but can be stubborn. They can also be hard to control on walks, particularly if they scent or spot potential prey. Popular Dogs in this group include; Afghan Hound, Basset, Beagle, Bloodhound, Blue Tick Coonhound, Borzoi, Greyhound, Irish Wolfhound, Saluki, Whippet.
Types of Dogs: Terriers
They are usually small and excitable, with strong characters. Originally bred to flush and attack small prey they retain a predatory streak and are easily aroused to aggression. Tend to be brave and confident dogs. Popular Dogs in this group include; Airedale, Border Terrier, Bull Terrier, Fox Terrier, Jack Russell Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, West Highland White Terrier.
Types of Dogs: Utility Group
A diverse group of breeds which do not fit comfortably into any of the other groups. Individual traits depend on the work they were bred for. Popular Dogs in this group include; American Akita, Chow Chow, German Spitz, Keeshond, Shar Pei, Swedish Lapphund.
Types of Dogs: Working Dogs
The working group includes breeds as diverse as the Kelpie and the Newfoundland. These dogs tend to be large, intelligent, and protective, with temperament depending on the work they were bred for. Popular types of dogs in this group include; Akita Inu, Alaskan Malamute, Kelpie, Newfoundland, Schnauzer, Siberian Husky, Samoyed.